Normally you can translate “Thank you” into “Arigato”/「ありがとう」in Japanese. You would appreciate behaviors from Japanese people in various situations when you travel to Japan. Japanese people will be glad if you express your gratitude in Japanese to them because most of them know foreign people are not good at speaking Japanese. And your stay in Japan would get nicer.
This is a casual and common expression. You can also say “Arigatogozaimasu”/「ありがとうございます」as a polite expression. I say and hear both of them very often in daily life. You should say “Arigatogozaimasu”/「ありがとうございます」when you travel to Japan and express your gratitude to Japanese people whom you don’t know. They will smile for you to hear that.
This is a casual and common expression. I don’t say it often because I might give people a cold impression depending on the way of saying it. You can also say “Domoarigatogozaimasu”/「どうもありがとうございます」as a polite expression. There is no problem even if you say “Domoarigatogozaimasu”/「どうもありがとうございます」to someone whom you don’t know.
As you may know Japanese people say “Sumimasen”/「すみません」when you apologize to someone politely. They say it also when they express their gratitude politely although you may be surprised. Also I say it to my bosses or elderly colleagues often.
This is a very formal expression. I don’t say and hear “Osoreirimasu”/「恐れ入ります」often although I can understand the meaning. So I recommend you should use other expressions when you travel to Japan.
I recommend you should say “Arigatogozaimasu”/「ありがとうございます」when you travel to Japan and express your gratitude to Japanese people. This is a polite and natural expression.
You have also “Domo”/「どうも」, “Sumimasen”/「すみません」and “Osoreirimasu”/「恐れ入ります」.